Multiple Versions Songs (10): Gujarati to, and fro, Hindi (film) songs (2)

May 22, 2013

Guest article by Ashok M Vaishnav

(In the tenth article in the series on Multiple Vesrsion Songs, which is the second part of Ashokji’s article on cross-pollination between Hindi and Gujarati songs, he looks at the influence of Gujarati light/folk sangeet on Hindi film music.  Some of the examples are very well-known songs without our being aware of Gujarati folk influence on them.  So, here is another voyage of discovery of the Hindi film songs influenced by Gujarati folk dance and songs. – AK)

Gujarati GarabaWe had had a peep into the versions Gujarati light (sugam) sangeet from Hindi film music in the first part of this article. In this second part we will take a reverse track and have a look at the influence of Gujarati light / folk sangeet on Hindi film music.

The most popular form of Gujarati (folk) sangeet that can be heard, in very high decibels, during Navaratri (The festival of nine nights) is Garba. So, as can be expected, Garba does occupy the lion’s share of this post.

Garba, in fact, has several other variants also, like (Dandiya) Raas or Garabi. This is one form of Gujarati light /folk sangeet, which is must-have for any Gujarati film, and which has also found sustained usage in Hindi films, either in its (relatively) pure form or as its improvised adaptations.

Let us first look at ‘Garba’ songs in Gujarati films, so that what is presented thereafter can be better appreciated in terms of comparing those tunes with the basic form:

Taaliyo na taale gori Garbe ghumati jay reMangal Fera (1949), Avinash Vyas – Geeta Roy (Dutt)

I have picked this one, to show the apparent comfort with which Geeta Dutt goes on sing this playful tune, with quite native diction and throw of words.

 

Mahendi te vavi malve ne eno rang gayo Gujaraat reMahendi Rang Lagyo (1960) – Avinash Vyas – Lata Mangeshkar, Pinakin Shah

One of the most popular Gujarati (Garba) songs, from a film which had Rajendra Kumar and Usha Kiron in the lead roles

 

Amare angane avsarGhar Sanasar (1981) – Salil Chaudhary – Asha Bhosle

What is to be noted about this quintessential ‘garba’ is that even as the singer and music directors are non-Gujarati, the end result is a flawless rendition of a traditional Gujarati folk form. Interestingly, Salil Chaudhary, who had great penchant for using the tunes across different languages, has not used ‘garba’ tune anywhere else.

http://www.salilda.com/songs/film/gujarati/gharsansaar/ammare.mp3

(Note: By copying this link in the browser, the song can be heard on-line-streaming)

Next, we look at Hindi Films that have predominant Gujarati culture in the plot of the film, and therefore, necessarily, have at least one song on the ‘Garba’ format:

Main to bhool chali babul ka deshSaraswatichandra (1968), Kalyanji Anandji – Lata Mangeshkar and Chorus

A song which has lyrics befitting ‘kanya vidayi’, but the composition of the song, and the dance on the screen, has true form of a ‘Garba’

 

Mero gaam – Manthan (1976) – Vanraj Bhatia – Preeti Sagar

Manthan’ is based on the legendary Verghese Kurien’s ‘white’ revolution saga, through the vehicle of cooperative milk production. The mainstay of his work was in and around Anand, a town in the central part of Gujarat. So, Vanraj Bhatia, who himself is a Gujarati, would certainly be expected to use Garba in the film.

 

AMUL, re-recorded the song in Sunidhi Chauhan’s voice for its advertising promotion, in slower rhythm for enabling the performance of the ‘Garba’ dance on that rhythm.

 

Ae dholi re bajavMirch Masala (1987) – Rajat Dholakia – Babubhai Ranpuri, Tejal Bharatri

Even though Ketan Mehta has principally addressed the subject of empowerment of women in culture of (rural) Bharat in this film, he has used the ecosystem of a Gujarati village for providing the background. Rajat Dholakia, son of late Shri Dilip Dholakia, a Gujarati music director, who also had had a long association with Hindi film industry, has retained all the true characteristics of ‘Garba’ as a traditional folk dance for all major social events in Gujarat.

 

Raja ki kahani puranee ho gayi, Godmother (1999), Vishal Bhardwaj, Usha Uthup, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Vishal and Rekha

This is a film based on the life of a (so called) ‘mafia queen’ of Porbandar, in western most part of Gujarat.

 

Or a male only ‘Raas’ form of ‘Garba’, from the same film:

Gunje gagan gunje lalakaren hum…Arjun bhi tum ho tum hi Shivam (Roop Kumar Rathod)

 

And, now look at the songs in Hindi films that have strong influence of ‘Garba’

Badal ki palki pe uhatke sawar, Chakradhari (1954), Avinash Vyas, Asha Bhosle and Hemant Kumar

Avinash Vyas himself has used deftly ‘garba’ tune for the song

 

And here is the song, belonging to the same year, inspired from ‘Garba’ tune:

Kanha bajaye bansuriNastik – C Ramachandra – Lata Mangeshkar

The dance is in the form of ‘Raas’ variant of ‘Garba’.

 

Some more examples of ‘Garba’ in Hindi Film Songs-

Na bole na bole Radha na ole re, Azad (1955), C Ramchandra, – Lata Mangeshkar

Mark the subtle use of ‘Garba’ as the base tune, as well as for Meena Kumari’s some of the dance steps on-screen

Adha hai chandrama raat aadhi, Navrang, C Ramachandra – The tune can be said to have been based on ‘Garba’ tune, but the composition has several improvisations added.

 

Chhod babaul ka ghar; Babul – Naushad – Shamshad Begum

Watch the ‘Raas’ style dance form of ‘Garba’, at its ‘classic’ flow in the way Nargis and her friends dance while singing the song.

 

Dholi taaro dhol baaje, Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (1999) Ismail Darbar (who is also a Gujarati) – Vinod Rathod, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Karsan Sagathia – Here is a faster paced l ‘Raas’ form of ‘Garba’

 

Raadha kaise na jale, Lagan (2001) – A R Rehman – Udit Narayan, Asha Bhosle, Vaishali – Again a tune that has core of ‘garba’ in its base as well as on-screen dance.

 

And now let us take a look at how other Gujarati songs ‘inspired’ some other Hindi songs

The 1949 film, Gunsundari was filmed in Hindi as well Gujarati. Music for Gujarati version was composed by Avinash Vyas whereas for Hindi version music was composed by Bulo C Rani, Avinash Vyas and Hansraj Behl.

Here is the one song in Gujarti version – Aaj maari nanadi ye mahenu maaryun (My sister-in-law taunted me today) – by Geeta Dutt

http://www.raaga.com/play/?id=311734

(By copying this link in the browser, Raaga.com’s screen containing this song will open up).

Its counterpart in Hindi version, is the song – Nandiya maare, composed by Bulo C Rani – that is filmed on an identical situation, is not a replica of the Gujarati song in terms of the tune or composition, even though Geeta Dutt is one more common link. Even the lyrics do capture the mood very well, but can be said to be fairly original when compared to the lyrics of the Gujarati version.

 

And now, we take a look at (as direct as any) inspirations of some Gujarati songs into Hindi films:

Raakh na Ramakada mara Raame Ramatan Raakhyan re (My Ram has been playing with ash toys) – Mangalfera (1949) – Avinash Vyas – Geeta Dutt and A R Oza

 

And its inspired version: Tora manava kyun ghabaraye – Sadhana (1958) – N Dutta – Geeta Dutt

 

And here is a bonus, an additional version of this song in Mohammad Rafi’s voice

 

Recall the clip of Taaliyo Na Taale presented earlier in this article when we listened to – Dekh ke akeli mohe barkha sataye, from Baazi (1951), composed by S D Burman and rendered by Geeta Dutt

 

As put forward in the earlier articles by Shri Arun Kumar Deshmukh and by Shri N Venkataraman, we see that ‘inspirations’ have flown quite freely from one language to other enriching the film music on either side.

Our journey of Multiple Version songs continues. ….till we meet again…

{ 51 comments… read them below or add one }

1 jignesh kotadia May 22, 2013 at 2:53 pm

Ashokji….nice collection of the hindi songs inspired with gujarati folk. Geeta dutt’s contribution in gfm is incredible despite of being a bengali. I wd like to await for ur ‘Garba’ special article on soy, if it cud relate to hfm anyway. ‘Garba’ is always an enticing subject for we gujjus.
I love the epic song ‘Rakh na ramakada mara raamE ramta rakhya re’ very much. I think it’s exact translation is ” my raam has been invigorating and making the ash toys play lively”
Amdavad ni garbi ane garmi banne bemisaal…Ashokji…aabhar…kyarek surat amara mahemaan bano to maja maja thai jaay.

2 Ashok M Vaishnav May 22, 2013 at 3:49 pm

@ Jignesh Kotadia:
Even as I heartly reciprocate your ivitation to visit Surat, let me forewarn you that my connection with Garba ( in fact – Garbi) is now almost half a cetury old, having stopped taking interst in the commercial form that is in vogue these days.
All the intersting correlations that I could find between ‘garaba’ and HFM are all here.
50s and 60s was the best possible period in so far as Gujarati Sugam Sangeet and active participation of all plyaback singers of HFM was concerned. In fact, that helped several other highly talented Gujarati singers also to get the benefit of popularity of Gujarati Geets, ultimately resulting in large repertoire of excellent Gujarati poems / ghazals to get medium of audio permances and recordings.

3 jignesh kotadia May 22, 2013 at 6:02 pm

@ Ashokji…i can reminisce the traditional ‘garbi’ being held in my home town Gondal in my childhood in 80’s. Now, it is engulfed by today’s loud music and almost vanished in my town. It is disheartening that we hv bn loosing our flavor,, but what we can do ?

4 Arunkumar Deshmukh May 22, 2013 at 7:23 pm

Ashok ji,

The famous song of the 50s,from the film Diva Dandi-50 taari aankh ni affini-sung by dileep Dholakiya and Music by Ajit Merchant

http://youtu.be/JW-DzA_Inhc

This was copied by Ajit merchant in 2 of his Hindi songs-

1.Chanda Loriyan sunayen-Film Naya sansar-1959

http://youtu.be/rbJrJ-Xh3KI

2.Raat ne gesu Bikharayen-Film Sapera-1959 sung by Manna dey and Suman Kalyanpur

http://youtu.be/rbJrJ-Xh3KI

Then another Gujarathi Gazal by Mohd. Rafi- Divaso judaa na jaay chhe

http://youtu.be/eqTBhpCFmiI

It was copied in tune from Sangdil -52 famous song of Sajjad Hussain and Talat – Ye hawa ye raat ye chandni…

http://youtu.be/do-XswSb0_4

5 Arunkumar Deshmukh May 22, 2013 at 8:34 pm

Ak ji,
I do not know,why my comment was waiting for moderation. I am not new here !
Anyway,one last sentence is missing from the above comment,as follows-
” I thank my friend Mr. Harish ji Raghuvanshi for furnishing me the above details about songs”
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6 jignesh kotadia May 22, 2013 at 9:25 pm

i have listened a b & w gujarati film song in the same tune of ” Naino me badra chhaye” but i cant recall it. Can anyone of my elder friends plz locate it ?

7 ASHOK M VAISHNAV May 22, 2013 at 10:49 pm

Arunji,
I have been listening to all these songs since ages, but was never able to make for that connection.

Thanks for the valued additions to the repertoire.

Harsih Raguvanshi has done most valued work on collecting the songs and the related trivia, which makes the collections far more valued.
on behalf of all the readers of SoY and on my own behalf, I take this opportunity to record our sincere appreciation of his immensely valuable work.

8 gaddeswarup May 23, 2013 at 3:57 am

Arunkumar Ji,
My experience with many sites is that comments with more than one link await moderation.
Thanks for the links. All except Talat song are new to me.

9 Khyati Bhatt May 23, 2013 at 5:52 am

Ashokbhai,
Thank you for the article. My fav Garba from a Hindi movie is from Johar Mehmood in Hongkong-71. Music is by Kalyanji Anandji, lyrics by Qamar Jalalabadi and singers are Mohd. Rafi and Mukesh

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jt-cT72alOQ

10 ASHOK M VAISHNAV May 23, 2013 at 8:41 am

Khyatibahen,
What a combination – supposedly a comedy movie – Rafi and Mukesh together – and a pure Garba !
The song is also composed well in terms of retaining the original flavor of the classical form.
Thanks for enriching the series with a relatively not-so-known song.

11 gaddeswarup May 23, 2013 at 11:56 am

Arunkumar Ji,
The second link seems to be (the previous link is repeated)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhAxKRz3CYQ
I remember this tune from a Telugu song too but cannot recall which film.

12 Arunkumar Deshmukh May 23, 2013 at 1:44 pm

gaddeswarup ji,
You are right.
Thanks for giving the right link now for the song- Raat ne gesu bikharaye-film- Sapera-1959.
-AD

13 AK May 23, 2013 at 3:25 pm

I have been enjoying this fascinating conversation. I should again thank Ashokji for opening the windows to the wonderful world of Gujarati song and culture. I could have never imagined that Radha na bole na bole had any trace of Gujarati folk tune.

Arunji,
You have as usual added something, which might be known to a Gujarati, but was completely knew for me. My first awareness of Dilip Dholakia was when I heard Mile nain gaya chain (Private Secretary) on the radio some years ago and I exclaimed, “How come such a nice Chitragupta composition I had not heard before?” This was such a signature style of Chitragupta. Then I became aware of Dilip Dholakia and his association with Chitragupta. Today I know for the first time that he was also an excellent singer. The adaptation in Chanda loriyan sunaye is too good.

Arunji, Wordpress seems to be randomly withholding comments of even regulars for moderation. I don’t think it has to do with number of links as Gaddeswarupji suggests. All regulars face this irritant off and on. I understand BlogSpot is even more whimsical. Fortunately, with mobile phones and 3G, it is never more than a couple of hours wait. I think we have to live with this irritant. Incidentally, I also get email intimation of new comments. I checked that up, it did not have the last sentence you have mentioned. Let me also express our thanks to Mr Harishji Raghuvanshi. I have heard a great deal about him.

Khyatiji,
Excellent song you have mentioned. Rafi-Mukesh duets would not be too many. This must be one of their better one.

14 Arunkumar Deshmukh May 23, 2013 at 6:23 pm

AK ji,
Thanks for your explanation about moderation. No problem.
By coincidence, recently I had a discussion with Shri Harish Raghuvanshi ji about Rafi+ Mukesh songs.

According to Shri Harish Raghuvanshi ji,the compiler of Mukesh Geet Kosh, there are only
7 Pure duets of Rafi+ Mukesh (Chilman-49,Thes-49,Phir subah hogi-58,Ujala-59,Hum Matwale Naujawan-61,Samjhauta-61 and Do Jasoos-75) and 3 more with Chorus (JM in Hongkong,Do Jasoos and Dharmaveer).
There are 13 group songs where Rafi+ Mukesh+ others are singing.
Additionally,there are only 2 Mukesh+Kishore kumar songs are there as duets,in Mere Apne and Kabeela.
There are 7 group songs of KK+Mukesh+others.
This is just for your information,since the topic came up.
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15 gaddeswarup May 24, 2013 at 8:17 am

Since the topic is about Gujarati and Hindi songs, this may be somewhat out of place here. Here is a Telugu version of Ajit Merchant tune
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qY1r-UABhQ
The Telugu film is ‘Velugu needalu’. There is a Tamil version of the film ‘Tuya uram’. So there may be a Tamil version of the song too.

16 ASHOK M VAISHNAV May 24, 2013 at 10:09 am

Gaddeswarupji,
Manay, many thanks for extending the scope of the subject so tellingly.

17 gaddeswarup May 24, 2013 at 10:34 am

I wonder whether somebody can write more about that tune. To my limited knowledge, it does not seem classical or folk. May be just a pure invention of the MD. I also feel that it must have travelled to several Indian languages.

18 n.venkataraman May 24, 2013 at 7:07 pm

Ashok Vaishnavji,
First of all I should congratulate you for starting this multiple version series. Now in its 10th episode, this series has largely covered variety of songs from six decades, diverse cultures and four languages, with a sprinkling of songs from Telugu and Oriya too. With songs from many more languages and categories to be covered in future, this is turning to be very stimulating and contagious. We are in the 100th year of Indian Cinema and what better way of celebrating this occasion. In fact this can be considered the best tribute to Indian cinema from Songs of Yore. Thank once again to Akji and yourself.

The first two ‘Garbas’ from Gujarati films are both viewers delight and listener’s pleasure. Anytime, originals are always good. Two wonderful compositions by Avinash Vyas. In the first song and dance sequence reminded me of a similar folk version of Tamil Nadu called ‘Kummiattam’. There too the women folk form a circle around ‘Ghat’, or a ‘Tulasi Maadam’ or ‘a big decorated lamp’ placed in the centre of a colourful circle-shaped ‘Koalam’ or ‘Alpana’ and dance to the accompaniment of song and hand clapping. The similarity does not end here. In the second song some of the ladies were dancing with a mini ‘Tazia’ like figure on their heads and the some were dancing with earthen pots placed on their heads. The first one reminded me of a folk dance called ‘Kavadiattam’, largely performed by men folk carrying similar looking figures on their shoulders. The second one closely resembled ‘Karagattam’ where ladies dance with earthen or metal pots balanced on their heads. I was wondering at this close affinity between the folk forms of two states, one from west and the other from south east, both having rich traditions.

Here I am making a wild assumption. I am neither a serious student of history nor an expert in folk or classical art forms. But with my little knowledge of history I can tell you that, the Gujaratis were seafaring people and started voyaging even before the advent of Ghazni. Similary we can find such instances in the South, during the rule of Cholas (Chozhas) and other dynasties. Sometime during the first half of 11th century a large number of Saurashtrians started migrating beyond the Deccan and by early 17th century we can find evidence of Saurashtrian families, who were mainly silk weavers by profession, settling down in places in and around Madurai. Even today this group called ‘Pattunulkaarar’ can be found in vicinity of Madurai. Similar migrations could have happened during different historical periods. It is my assumption that the Saurashtrians and may be other similar groups might have carried with them their culture and art forms to the south and it might have got merged with the local milieu. Again this a wild guess only. But this can trigger a serious discussion on transplantation of cultures through migration.

In the third song, only the audio version is presented and we do not know much about the picturisation. The song was wonderful. Salil Choudhry was a genius and his contribution towards cross fertilization of music across different regions is a well acknowledged fact. In this song he dexterously amalgamated a Bengali folk tune with the nuances of ‘Garba’ without retaining the BGM of the original score. We can have further discourse on this, when we take up the compositions of Salil Choudhury in future. Geeta Dutt was a great singer and it is not all surprising that she had rendered the song so well. If I remember right she had sung more Gujarati songs than Bengali numbers. The Bengalis were possessively proud about the contributions of V Balsara. Similarly the Gujaratis can claim Geeta Dutt to be their own. Their lies the all encompassing beauty of our culture.

In the second segment all the six ‘garbas’ from Hindi films with primarily Gujarati plots made good listening. The slower version composed by Vanraj Bhatiya engaged my attention the most.

Moving over to third segment, you have presented 7 songs from Hindi films that have strong influence of ‘Garba’. The first one, once again by Avinash Vyas, was no doubt good. In the second song in this segment, I noticed the use of sticks (similar to ‘Dandiya Garba’) and the use of (colorful) ropes attached to a revolving object at the top. In Tamil Nadu the first one is known as ‘Koalattam’ and the second one is known as ‘Pinnal Koalattam’. But the similarity ends here and we find the likeness only in dance. There is no similarity in the rendition of accompanying songs.

Somewhere I have read and mentioned that every culture does not accord equal status to audio and visual senses. In fact, the same culture may value them in varying degrees in different historical periods. So I do not know how people not exposed to this variety of folk form will respond to these songs. When I started reading this article, I never expected the songs to engage my attention. But as I proceeded, it gradually started gripping me. I thoroughly enjoyed the different variants of ‘Garba’ and the other songs and dances presented in the last segment.

Currently it is difficult to find the traditional form performed. Now it is all fusion.

Thank once again for another excellent write-up on ‘Garba’ and segmented presentation of selected ‘Garba’ dance-cum-song sequences from different situations.

Tumaro abhar Ashokji.

19 Arunkumar Deshmukh May 24, 2013 at 9:47 pm

Venkatraman ji,
With my little knowledge of Gujrat and its people’s history,I would say that Gujrati people were best suited for Trade and they set up ocean trade centre at Patan in the year 1000 AD. Patan boasted of a population of 100,000 (One Lakh) in the year 1000 AD !

Gujrat never ventured in sea faring or Voyages. They knew their strength was business.The did business with many overseas countries,but by remaining on their shores only. First the Arabs,then the muslims and finally the Parsees came from across the ocean asking for permission to settle in Gujrat.
Their ports and the rich temple of Somnath and Dwarka were looted by Mehmood of Gazani several times.

The Kutchi or people from Saurashtra were originally migrants from Mathura in UP in the 5th and 6th century.
Most of the Gujrat was ruled by the Gaikawads and the British later on in the 18th and 19th century. Gujrath was made a part of BOMBAY PRESIDENCY in British rule.

Gujrathis are highly adaptable people and hence have spread not only all over India but also In USA,UK Australia and many other countries of the world.
” where you do not find water or a blade of grass,somewhere you will find a Gujrathi selling these things” aptly describes their business accumen.
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20 ASHOK M VAISHNAV May 24, 2013 at 10:15 pm

Patan that Arunji mentions is the seat of one the finest hand-embroidered silk saarees , a.k.a. PATOLUN^, now of course a dying art.

Kutchis were at the forefront of migrants from the west to East Africa, as much as to almost all southern part of India. The sea-faring tribe of Kutch was considered to be the most knowledgeable sea-faring sailors in the entire Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. It is said that the captain of Vasco de Gama’s journey from Cape of Good Hope to India was a Kutchi sailor. The sea-faring folklore is also considered a to be one of the richest segment of Gujarati literature of later part of 19th or early part of 20th century. The western ports of Kutch were also known across the seas for their architecture and craft of ship-building.

Most of the Kutchis who ventured out in South India specialized in the trade of Spices, Grains and Timber.
Shri N. Venkataramanji and Arunji, thanks for taking the discussion to such a higher level.

21 bluefire May 25, 2013 at 4:04 am

Most of the following are new songs, however has strong connection to Gujarati music/artists/style/culture, so thought of listing them here. Some of them – Pankhida, Pooanm Ki Pyari Raat, Meri Marzi are the direct hindi adaptations of gujarati songs. Many thanks to Khyatiben for sending the link to this article.

(1) Manubhai Motor Chali Pam Pam Pam: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DWZRN8R9g4U)

(2) Pankhida O Pankhida: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jnWxqZUOvCg)

(3) Meri Marzi: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HnW7CGcFDw)

(4) Stop That: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPhc174WoKw)

(5) Chand Aaya Hai Zamee Pe Aaj Garbe Ki Raat Mein: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPEqBHjX_28)

(6) Kaipoche: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4g-Wpqe2EM)

(7) Man Mohini: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HkTaJctLGbE)

(8) Nimbooda Nimbooda: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJzT1KMjQ0k)

(9) Kem Chhe Kem Chhe: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LOxjVLNZF-4)

(10) Aanan Faanan Aanan Faanan: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZ9loh1abTE)

(11) Poonam Ki Pyari Pyari Raat: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txGciJLvuj0)

(12) He Sakhi Aayi Naval Navrat Garba Ramo: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ewS6IM46co)

(13) Aao Raas Rache Garba Raat Hai: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NEOa5mMhmf0)

(14) Hai Naam Re Sabse Bada Tera Naam: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-ynUav8AKM)

(15) Jai Ambe Jagdambe Maa: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PdtGIUAGwmk)

22 gaddeswarup May 25, 2013 at 4:10 am

I think Gujarat was a trading centre even during Indus valley culture and there were migrations from Gujarat in ancient days:

“The progenitor of the Sinhala language is believed to be Prince Vijaya, son of King Simhabahu who ruled Simhapura (modern-day Sihor near Bhavnagar.)[95] Prince Vijaya was banished by his father for his lawlessness and set forth with a band of adventurers. This tradition was followed by other Gujaratis. For example, in the Ajanta Frescoes, a Gujarati prince is shown entering Sri Lanka.[96]

Many Indians had migrated to Indonesia, some of them being Gujaratis. King Aji Saka, who is said to have come to Java in Indonesia in year 1 of the Saka calendar, is believed by some to be a king of Gujarat.[97] The first Indian settlements in Java Island of Indonesia are believed to have been established with the coming of Prince Dhruvavijaya of Gujarat, with 5000 traders.[97] Some stories propose a Brahmin named Tritresta was the first to bring Gujarati migrants with him to Java, so some scholars equate him with Aji Saka.[98] A Gujarati ship has been depicted in a sculpture at Borabudur, Java.” from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarat

I remember reading that the name Cambodia came from migrants from Kambhoja who first settled in Gujarat and the migrated to Cambodia.

23 Khyati Bhatt May 25, 2013 at 5:46 am

Ashokbhai,
“Patan nu Patolun” reminded me of Asha Bhonsle’s song
Chhelaji re maari haatu Patan thi patoda mongha laavjo…
Here is the link for someone interested in this song-
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vOVBgp67lqk
In 1985, I went to Patan to attend my best friend’s wedding and her father took us to see this amazing art of weaving. The tour was amazing! They were weaving one saree which, on complition would have sold for Rs. 1,00,000 back then. (You must have guessed it right that I DID NOT BUY THAT PATOLUN. ) Making one patolun took them almost a year as they would color/tie-die each and every thread separately and then weave them after those threads would dry completely. (The number of threads are out of my imagination) They had only three workers working for that project and said that Gov of India was supporting them with just minimal donation. I am not aware of the present status/condition of this dying art of Gujarat.

24 ASHOK M VAISHNAV May 25, 2013 at 8:52 am

@ bluefire
Well, with the numbers that you have added up here, I may as well think of recalling my lament that Gujarati Songs do not quantitatively reflect the proportion of participation of Gujaratis in the Hindi Film Industry!
Many thanks for your contribution on SoY.

@ Khyati Bhatt
I must complement you for having the courage to even go and have a look at the Patolan^, which would cost so much of a fortune that if some one would be imagined to ask to get that Patan Na Patolan^ would make the heart miss a few bits.

25 ASHOK M VAISHNAV May 25, 2013 at 9:00 am

@ gaadeswarup

Your exposition just lets my imagination fly a bit too wildly on th etime machine — Would there be any chance to have Khambhat (a.k.a. Cambay) , once a thriving port at the tip of Narmada on the Gulf of Camaby in Arabian Sea? of course, Wikipedia link , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khambhat, does not support such wild guesses. But Khambat has had rich linkages with international trade channels.

26 gaddeswarup May 25, 2013 at 9:20 am

Ashokji,
One cannot read too much from place names. Many think Kandahar has some thing to do with Gandhara, but it seems to be from either the local name of Alexander or local candy. I could not quickly recall references and cited Wikipedia but I guess many of these are disputed. I do not know how much influence they have on the present but I would think that some folk tales and traditions persist in modified forms. Here is another link to Cambodia and Gujarat
http://www.kambojsociety.com/Kambodia.asp
but I think that these are only guesses

27 Arunkumar Deshmukh May 25, 2013 at 9:32 am

Ashok ji,
Here is a fun song from a Hindi film,which is almost in (Parsee) Gujarathi language,sung by I S Johar,Bhagwan,Sunder and Maruti,in film BADHATI KA NAAM DADHI-1974,Lyrics and composition was by the inimitable Kishore Kumar-

http://youtu.be/ejpg-xNvK-I

28 bluefire May 25, 2013 at 10:39 am

Not sure if u have covered that late 40s Gujarati song (cant recall which one) that inspired RK/LP for Satyam Shivam Sundaram. I think Arunji knows the details.

29 ASHOK M VAISHNAV May 25, 2013 at 11:42 am

@ bluefire – We propose to later on address that song under a different category in this series.
@Arunkumar Deshmukh – This is what I have been expecting of Gujarati Music Directors. To go beyond one form of Garba and its variants. Kalyanadji Anandaji have hit upon the idea, but did not seem to capatilize on the concept. Else we may have had Roakesh Roshan come up with genuine Parsee- sounding song in “Khatta – Meetha “.

30 n.venkataraman May 25, 2013 at 12:33 pm

Thanks to Arunji for the Gujarati original of ‘Chandan loriyan sunayen’ and other Hindi versions. The Gujarati Ghazal by Md.Rafi was also good but the original by Talat Mahmood, which I am never tired of hearing, was superb. Thanks to Harishji, Khyatiji and Gaddeswarupji too.
Thanks to Arunji, Ashokji and Gaddeswarupji for providing more information on Gujaratis, their migration to South India and other parts of the world.
Gaddeswarupji has presented the Telugu version of the Gujarati song ‘Taari aankh ni affini’. Indeed there is a Tamil version of this song from Thuya Ullam sung by P Susheela and T M Sounderarajan. That means there are five version of this song in four languages. Incidentally T M Sounderarajan was born in a Saurashtra community in Madurai. Here is the Tamil version.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GFHGQ4SnUDU

31 AK May 25, 2013 at 12:44 pm

This is awesome – the level of discussion, the information and songs the readers have added. Each article is becoming not only a discussion of multiple version songs, but also the history and culture of the region. I would like to add my thanks to Arunji, Venkataramanji, and Gaddeswarupji for lifting it to this level. Though it was not planned with that kind of ambition, the series is truly becoming a very befitting tribute to the centenary of our films. For this, along with Ashokji, other guest authors and participants in the discussions deserve our thanks.

Bluefire, I have to specially thank you for Poonam ki pyari pyari raat. When I first heard this song, I placed it to late 50s/early 60s, and by Lata Mangeshkar. It has got all the old world charm of the Golden Era. That in 1976 such a song could be created makes me wonder why we gave up creating this kind of music. That it was by Usha Mangeshkar (and Keshav Rathod), and composed by C Arjun makes everything clear – a repeat of Jai Santoshi Ma.

Arunji,
That IS Johar song is too good. A sad tune creating a comic effect.

Khyatiji,
When I read your comment about Patolun and Ashokji’s response, I was reminded of my experience when I entered some high end store out of curiosity. The store staff have some way of sniffing who is a genuine customer, and who a tourist. In their polite way ‘May I help you Sir’, they leave you in no doubt that you are not welcome. Now I keep my curiosity in check.

About cross-cultural influences, we see many examples. For example, in UP/Bihar, during Durga Puja the tradition was of Ram Leela. Because of Bengali diaspora, now you have Durga Puja with the same style everywhere.

A sad fact is that many folk/local traditions are becoming extinct. My own feeling is that it has to do with urbanisation and upward mobility, which leads to some kind of homogenisation. Perhaps it is an inevitable outcome of economic growth, and we need to make conscious effort to keep them alive.

32 Arunkumar Deshmukh May 25, 2013 at 1:42 pm

bluefire ji and Ashok ji,

Yashomati maiyya se- from Satyam shivam sundaram was a true copy of the song- Aai Gori radhika,bal khati huye.. sung by Ninu mujumdar and Meena kapoor in film GOPINATH-1948,MD was Ninu Mujumdar. If Ninu has taken this tune from any Gujrati song,I have no information,but i think it is originally a Hindi Tune from Gopinath-1948 only.
Raj kapoor had also acdepted that it was a stolen tune,but L-P denied it till end,claiming that it was their tune.
This Gopinath song is available on Atul ji’s Blog Under Gopinath-48.
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33 Anu Warrier May 25, 2013 at 9:04 pm
34 ASHOK M VAISHNAV May 25, 2013 at 9:59 pm

First, my sincere apologies for a mistake – Music director for Khatta Meetha ought to have been spelled as Rajesh Roshan.

Anuji, you have made the day, in your own style Thanks, in the classic cricket parlance, for a delicate late cut.

35 mumbaikar8 May 26, 2013 at 6:23 am

Due to my busy schdule I have missed participating in last few blogs, but this article made me break my schedule to write in few words.
Thanks to every one for for making it so interesting.
I have to discuss many things , but canot make it this time .
I would like to add one more rass from Suhag.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEuR-Jp83jM&feature=player_detailpage

36 Khyati Bhatt May 27, 2013 at 5:42 am

Bluefirji,
Thanks for the list of songs from new era with the flavor of Gujarat folk sangeet. The song “poonam ki pyaari pyaari raat……” from the movie Rakshabandhan-76 reminded me of the Gujarati movie Khamma mara veera which was a remake of Rakshabandhan (or vice versa) with the same cast. The song is “Poonam ni pyaari pyaari raat…” We had a small discussion about this song on Atulji’s site- atulsongaday.com.
Here is the audio link of Gujarati version.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tb4KxsgqI9U

Auji,
Thanks for the link. Feels good to know that this art would survive and hope to buy one in future if the economy improves. :)

37 Subodh Agrawal May 28, 2013 at 5:55 pm

I was without broadband access for two weeks. I could see the post, but couldn’t play the songs. Today I have treated myself to this sumptuous feast served by Mr Vaishnav in AK’s ‘mandap’. Thank you Mr Vaishnav and AK for this treat.

38 Ashok M Vaishnav May 28, 2013 at 6:43 pm

Subodhji,
No feast is ever complete without your presence.
So good to have you back, savouring the fare, providing those valuable titbit feedbacks, or , as it happens most of the time, making the feast come live.

39 Ashok M Vaishnav May 28, 2013 at 6:48 pm

@ Khyati Bhatt,
Are there any more songs that are exactly similarly composed in this movie?
A little more detailed exposition on the nature of similarities (or otherwise), on the lines that Shri Venakataraman is charting w.r.t. Tamil songs, would certainly add a new dimension to the discussion on the subject.

40 Khyati Bhatt May 29, 2013 at 12:28 am

Ashokji,
Unfortunately I could not find any details about these two versions on the web and I had seen these both versions on Doordarshan, may be in late 70s or early 80s, so don’t remember any other songs too.

41 Subodh Agrawal May 31, 2013 at 6:21 pm

I think the song ‘Chal ja re hat natkhat’ from Navrang also has a strong Gujarati flavour. Would Mr Vaishnav agree?

42 arvind May 31, 2013 at 9:59 pm

http://youtu.be/gdz78BW7pKU
this is a link to the holi song (holi aayee re kanhai ) from MOTHER INDIA (1957).the song has( sh vaishnavji to confirm !) fair amount amount of garba/dandia or as subodh puts it-gujrati flavour. Mehboob Khan who directed/produced the movie was born in bilimora(gujrat).

43 n.venkataraman June 1, 2013 at 12:53 am

I am not sure whether this songs fits into this category.
‘Bhiksha dede maiyya pingala’ by Amibhai Karnataki and Surendra from ‘Raja Bharatari’ (1944), lyrics Pandit Indira music Khemchand Prakash
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZVshSLUl7Mo

‘Bhiksha dene maiyya pingala’ by Suman Kalyanpur and Mahendra Kapoor from ‘Raja Bharatari’ (1973) lyrics and music Avinash Vyas
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGv_rsDpZf0

44 ASHOK M VAISHNAV June 1, 2013 at 9:39 am

@ Subodh Agrawal, arvind:
These songs do seem to have strong Gujarati “Garaba / Raas” influence.

It seems C Ramachandra and Naushad had a fair inclination towards this rhythm.

But, as Shri Venkataraman has demonstrated, folk from form other parts of the country also may have similar roots.

45 ASHOK M VAISHNAV June 1, 2013 at 10:07 am

@ N. Venkataraman

Bhiksha Dene Maiya Pingla is a bhajan that is so closely woven with the folk tales.

I remember having seen this bhajan getting n-number of “once more” by the “local” audience”, when we were “camping” at nearby village , as apart of the school project, sometime in 1958.

So, no wonder whenever the subject of Raja Bharathari (Bhartuhari) may come up as an expression of performing art, this bhajan has to be the epitome of the whole story.

The 1973 Gujarati film belongs to the period when folk subjects, more or less solely, dominated the deluge of Gujarati films, and Upendra Trivedi ( Brother of Ramanad Sagar’s first version of tv serial Ramayan’ “Raavan” – Arvind Trivedi).
So wonderful of you to have presented these two versions, spanning around 3 decades apart!

Just to validate the poularity of the bhajan, here is a video clip of the album which is itself titled :Bhiksha Dene Re Maiya Pingla . As shown in the titles of the album, the album is commissioned by Asha Parekh. This particular bhajan is the first in the album and is rendered by Damayantiben Bardai , one of the present day prominent exponent of performing arts of Gujartai Folk – http://youtu.be/NgJZBfsH6f4

Here is one more clip form YT, showing the present day performance of this folk story in Marawari language – http://youtu.be/JLe9AOGuI1k

46 n.venkataraman June 1, 2013 at 1:01 pm

Ashok ji,
Thank you for the details and the songs. The rendition by Damyantiben Bardai was wonderful.
One of the biggest gain from this multiple version series is that we are able to exchange and understand the diverse cultural trends of the multidimensional Indian society, may be through the medium of films. But who can deny that Indian film industry in itself is the melting pot of our diverse cultures right from its inception. Now SoY has provided the right forum for such discourses.

47 shukla July 28, 2013 at 4:29 am

Ashok Ji & All :

While we are enjoying this thread we would like to request for the song from Gujarati Film-Kadu Makrani- Song- Aman chaman maa bharya re bhuvan maa mare lal gavan ni khot padi…..

We are looking for this since decades & will be obliged if anyone has and e-mail to us

sursangat@gmail.com

Thanks.

Shukla

Canada

48 shruti May 14, 2014 at 1:47 pm

hi sir
your website has been very informative. We are currently doing a tv show with regard to folk songs that have made their way into bollywood and pop culture. Kindly provide your contact details, would love to get in touch with you regarding the same.

thanks and warm regards
shruti

49 AK May 14, 2014 at 1:51 pm

Shruti,
Thanks a lot. I have sent you a mail.

50 arvindersharma May 14, 2014 at 11:50 pm

Today, when I was replying to Shikha Vohra Ji in this blog, I noticed a comment by Shruti Ji on the multiple version songs (Gujarati) and went through the article.
Now this is akin to attending a gala feast where so much variety of food is placed that you are left undecided as to which dishes to savour and which ones to leave.
(Since last three days, I was feeding on Rabindra Sangeet and Pankaj Mullick).
Fortunately time and inclination, both are on my side and I am enjoying to apply my mental faculties towards my favourite passion.
Some of the most melodious Hindi songs, as we can see in this article, have influenced or have been influenced by Gujarati music, especially folk.
Ashok Vaishnav Ji has done a commendable service to the readers of SoY by providing such a detailed and informative article.
Three film songs come to my mind and I will place them for your review as follows.

Ho re ho re jhanan ghunghar baaje by Lata and chorus from ‘Ganga Jamuna’, music Naushad :
Haule haule ghunghat pat khole by Rafi/Lata and chorus from ‘Goonj Uthi Shehnai, music Vasant Desai :
Nazuk nazuk badan Mora hai chubh chubh jaye re tore nain by Rafi/Lata and chorus from ‘Aulad’, music Chitragupta
and a very old Punjabi folk song by Surinder Kaur, ‘Lathhe di chadar utte saleti rang mahiya’, though may sound a bit odd to some, will definitely go with a Garba dance.

51 Ashok Vaishnav May 15, 2014 at 8:57 am

# arvindersharma,
It is certainly a matter of great pleasure to have more and more people who share what one has liked at the same wavelength.
All three songs you have mentioned do certainly seem to have a very close resemblance to the basic Garba rhythm.
Since Hindi Film Music world had very close connections with many Gujarati people (in those days), it may be not be inopportune to note that the versatile music directors of that era would innovatively improvise the use of folk rhythms of any Indian province for their songs.
On my personal behalf, and on behalf SoY family, I take this opportunity in expanding the shared-horizon of joy and knowledge in so far as Hindi Film Music is concerned.

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